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EMDR Yöntemi Hakkındaki Kaynaklar

KİTAPLAR

Shapiro, F. (2012). EMDR Terapisi Teknikleri ile Acı Anıları Silmek. Kuraldışı Yayınevi

Grand, D. (2005). Işık Hızıyla İyileşme. Kuraldışı Yayınevi

ARAŞTIRMALAR*

Dünya çapında yapılmış birçok bilimsel araştırma sonucuna göre EMDR yöntemi, travma sonrası stres bozukluğu başta olmak üzere farklı türdeki birçok problem türünde başarılı sonuçlar vermektedir.

  • Daha önce tedaviden yarar sağlanamamış Irak, Afganistan, Vietnam, Kore ve 2. Dünya Savaşı gazilerinin EMDR terapisinden sonra olayı yeniden yaşama hissi, kabuslar ve diğer belirgin travma sonrası stres bozukluğu semptomlarının tamamen ortadan kalktığı görülmüştür (Blore, 1997a; Carlson, Chemtob, Rusnak, & Hedlund, 1996; Carlson, Chemtob, Rusnak, Hedlund, & Muraoka, 1998; Daniels, Lipke, Richardson, & Silver, 1992; Lipke, 2000; Lipke & Botkin, 1992; Russell, 2006, 2008; Russell, Silver, Rogers, & Darnell, 2007; Silver & Rogers, 2001; Silver, Rogers, & Russell, 2008; Thomas & Gafner, 1993; Wesson & Gould, 2009; White, 1998; Young, 1995; Zimmermann, Güse, Barre, Biesold, 2005).
  • Fobi, panik bozukluk, obsesif kompulsif bozukluk ve yaygın kaygı bozukluğu olan kişilerin korku hislerinde ve semptomlarında azalma sağlanmıştır (Böhm & Voderholzer, 2010; De Jongh, 2012; De Jongh, Holmshaw, Carswell, & van Wijk, 2010; De Jongh & ten Broeke, 1998; De Jongh, ten Broeke & Renssen, 1999; De Jongh, van den Oord, & ten Broeke, 2002; Doctor, 1994; de Roos, & de Jongh, 2008; Feske & Goldstein, 1997; Fernandez & Feretta, 2007; Goldstein, 1992; Gauvreau, & Bouchard, 2008; Gattinara, 2009; Goldstein & Feske, 1994; Gros & Antony, 2006; Grey, 2011; Howard & Cox, 2006; Kleinknecht, 1993; Marr, 2012; Nadler, 1996; Nazari et al., 2011; Newgent, Paladino, Reynolds, 2006; O’Brien, 1993; Protinsky, Sparks, & Flemke, 2001a; Roos, Veenstra, et al., 2010; Schurmans, 2007; Muris & Merckelbach, 1997; Muris, Merkelbach, Holdrinet, & Sijsenaar, 1998; Muris, Merckelbach, van Haaften & Nayer, 1997; Goldstein, de Beurs, Chambless, & Wilson, 2000)
  • Suç mağdurları, polis memurları, itfaiyeciler ve diğer çalışanların yaşadıkları saldırılar ya da iş ile ilgili travmalarının yarattığı olumsuz etkiler ortadan kalkmıştır (Baker & McBride, 1991; Dyregrov, 1993; Jensma, 1999; Kitchiner, 2004; Kitchiner & Aylard, 2002; Kleinknecht & Morgan, 1992; Lansing, Amen, Hanks, Rudy, 2005; McNally & Solomon, 1999; Page & Crino, 1993; Rost, Hofmann & Wheeler, 2009; Shapiro & Solomon, 1995; Solomon, 1995, 1998; Solomon, & Dyregrov, 2000; Wilson, Becker, Tinker, & Logan, 2001).
  • Sevdiği birisini kaybetmenin getirdiği şiddetli yas durumu ya da işi sırasında yanlışlıkla insanların ölümüne neden olmak (örneğin, makinistin treni durduramayıp yayaları ezmesi gibi) nedeniyle hissedilen suçluluk duyguları iyileştirilmiştir (Gattinara, 2009; Lazrove et al., 1998; Puk, 1991a; Shapiro & Solomon, 1995; Solomon, 1995, 1998; Solomon & Kaufman, 2002;  Solomon & Rando, 2007; Solomon & Shapiro, 1997; Sprang, 2001).
  • Çocuklar ve ergenler rahatsız edici yaşam olayları sonrasında yaşadıkları depresyon dahil olmak üzere tüm semptomlarından kurtulmuştur (Ahmad et al., 2007; Bae, Kim, & Park, 2008; Beer & Bronner, 2010; Bronner et al., 2009; Chemtob, Nakashima, Hamada & Carlson, 2002; Cocco & Sharpe, 1993; Datta & Wallace, 1994, 1996; Fernandez, 2007; Fernandez, Gallinari, & Lorenzetti, 2004; Greenwald, 1994, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002; Hensel, 2006, 2009; Jaberghaderi, Greenwald, Rubin, Dolatabadim, & Zand, 2004; Johnson, 1998; Jarero, Artigas, & Hartung, 2006; Korkmazler-Oral & Pamuk, 2002; Kraft, Ribchester, Yule & Duncan, 2010; Schepker, Goldbeck, & Fegert, 2006; Lovett, 1999; Maxfield, 2007; Oras et al., 2004; Pellicer, 1993; Puffer, Greenwald & Elrod, 1998; Rodenburg et al., 2009; Russell & O’Connor, 2002; Scheck, Schaeffer, & Gillette, 1998; Shapiro, 1991; Soberman, Greenwald, & Rule, 2002; Stewart & Bramson, 2000; Streeck-Fischer, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Tinker & Wilson, 1999 Tufnell, 2005; Wadaa, Zaharim, & Alqashan, 2010; Wanders, Serra, & de Jongh, 2008; Zaghrout-Hodali, Alissa, & Dodgson, 2008).
  • Cinsel saldırıya uğrayan kişiler EMDR terapisi sonrasında normal yaşamlarına dönebilmiş ve yakın ilişkiler kurabilmiştir (Edmond, Rubin, & Wambach, 1999; Hyer, 1995; Kowal, 2005; Parnell,1999; Posmontier, Dovydaitis, & Lipman, 2010; Puk, 1991a; Rothbaum, 1997; Rothbaum, Astin, Marsteller, 2005; Scheck, Schaeffer, & Gillette, 1998; Shapiro, 1989b, 1991, 1994; Wolpe & Abrams, 1991).
  • Doğal ya da insan eliyle gerçekleşen afet kurbanları EMDR terapisi ile normal yaşamlarına geri dönebilmişlerdir (Chemtob et al, 2002; Colelli, & Patterson, 2008; Farrell et al., 2011; Fernandez, 2008; Fernandez, et al, 2004; Gelbach, 2008; Grainger, Levin, Allen-Byrd, Doctor, & Lee, 1997; Jarero, & Artigas, 2010; Jarero, Artigas, Mauer, Lopez Cano, & Alcala, 1999; Jayatunge, 2008; Knipe, Hartung, Konuk, Colleli, Keller, & Rogers, 2003; Konuk, Knipe, Eke, Yuksek, Yurtsever, & Ostep, 2006; Shapiro & Laub, 2008; Shusta-Hochberg, 2003; Silver, Rogers, Knipe & Colelli, 2005).
  • Duygusal ya da fiziksel olarak yaşamları etkilenmiş kaza, cerrahi operasyon ve yanık mağdurlarları EMDR terapisi sonrasında üretken bir şekilde hayata dönebilmişlerdir (Blore, 1997b; Broad & Wheeler, 2006; Hassard, 1993; McCann, 1992; Puk, 1992; Softic, 2009: Solomon & Kaufman, 1994).
  • Aile, evlilik ya da cinsel problemler yaşayan kişiler EMDR terapisi yardımıyla sağlıklı bir ilişki düzeyine ulaşabilmiştir (Bardin, 2004; Capps, 2006; Errebo & Sommers-Flanagan, 2007; Keenan & Farrell, 2000; Gattinara, 2009; Kaslow, Nurse, & Thompson, 2002; Knudsen, 2007; Koedam, 2007; Levin, 1993; Madrid, Skolek & Shapiro, 2006; Moses, 2007; Phillips et al. 2009; Protinsky, Sparks, & Flemke, 2001b; Reicherzer, 2011; Shapiro, Kaslow, & Maxfield, 2007; Snyder, 1996; Stowasser, 2007; Talan, 2007; Wernik, 1993; Wesselmann & Potter, 2009).
  • Bağımlılık probleminin (uyuşturucu, cinsel ve kumar) her türlü aşamasındaki kişiler EMDR terapisi sonrasında artık stabil bir yaşam seviyesine ulaşmış ve nüks oranları azalmıştır (Abel & O’Brien, 2010; Amundsen & Kårstad, 2006; Besson, Eap, Rougemont-Buecking, Simon, Nikolov, Bonsack, 2006; Cox & Howard, 2007; Hase, Schallmayer, & Sack, 2008; Henry, 1996; Marich, 2009; Popky, 2005; Ricci, 2006; Ricci et al., 2006; Shapiro & Forrest, 1997; Shapiro, Vogelmann-Sine, & Sine, 1994; Vogelmann-Sine, Sine, Smyth, & Popky, 1998; Zweben & Yeary, 2006).
  • Disosiyatif bozukluğa (kopma anları yaşamayı içeren bir sorun) sahip kişiler geleneksel tedavi yöntemlerine göre EMDR terapisi ile daha hızlı bir şekilde ilerleme göstermişlerdir  (Cohen, 2009; Fine, 1994; Fine & Berkowitz, 2001; Lazrove, 1994; Lazrove & Fine 1996; Marquis & Puk, 1994; Paulsen, 1995; Rouanzoin, 1994; Twombly, 2000, 2005; Young, 1994).
  • Okulda, işte, sahne sanatı faaliyetlerinde ve spor aktivitelerinde performans kaygısı yaşayan kişilerde EMDR terapisi yöntemleri performansı artırmada faydalı olmuştur (Barker,  & Barker, 2007; Crabbe, 1996; Foster & Lendl, 1995, 1996; Graham, 2004; Maxfield & Melnyk, 2000; Silverman, 2011.
  • Migren, kronik ağrı, kaybedilen organın hayalet ağrısı, kronik egzama, mide problemleri, kronik yorgunluk sendromu, psikojenik felç, yeme bozuklukları ve olumsuz beden algısı dahil olmak üzere EMDR terapisi ile bedensel problemlerde yaşanan sıkıntılarda rahatlama sağlanmıştır (Bloomgarden, & Calogero, 2008; Brown, McGoldrick, & Buchanan, 1997; Chemali & Meadows, 2004; de Roos, Veenstra, et al., 2010; Dziegielewski & Wolfe, 2000; Friedberg, 2004; Gattinara, 2009; Grant, 1999; Grant & Threlfo, 2002; Gupta & Gupta, 2002; Kelley, & Selim, 2007; Kneff & Krebs, 2004; Konuk et al., 2011; Kowal, 2005; Marcus, 2008; Mazzola et al., 2009; McGoldrick, Begum, & Brown, 2008; Ray & Zbik, 2001; Royle, 2008; Russell, 2008a, b; Schneider et al., 2007, 2008; Silver, Rogers, & Russell, 2008; Tinker & Wilson, 2006; Torun, 2010; Van Loey & Van Son, 2003; Wilensky, 2006; Wilson et al., 2000).
  • Yetişkinlerde ve ergenlerde EMDR terapisi ile depresyon başarılı bir şekilde tedavi edilmiştir (Bae, Kim & Park, 2008; Broad & Wheeler, 2006; Gomez, 2008; Grey, 2011; Hogan, 2001; Manfield, 1998b; Protinsky, Sparks,  & Flemke, 2001a; Srivastava, & Mukhopadhyay, 2008; Tanaka, & Inoue, 1999; Uribe, & Ramirez, 2006).
  • Akut travma, travma sonrası stres bozukluğu ve travmatik olaylara bağlı olarak zaman içinde gelişen kişilik sorunlarında EMDR terapisi kalıcı faydalar sağlamıştır (Allen & Lewis, 1996; Barol, & Seubert, 2010; Bisson, Ehlers, Matthews, Pilling, Richards, Turner, 2007; Brown  & Shapiro, 2006; Carbone, 2008; Cohn, 1993; Farrell et al., 2010; Fensterheim, 1996; Forbes, Creamer, & Rycroft, 1994; Gelinas, 2003; Hogberg, Pagani, Sundin, Soares, Aberg-Wistedt, Tarnell, et al, 2007; Inoue, 2009;  Kim & Choi, 2004; Kutz, Resnik, & Dekel, 2008; Ironson, et al., 2002; Kim & Choi, 2004; Kitchiner, 1999, 2000; Korn & Leeds, 2002; Laub & Weiner,  2011; Lee, et al., 2002; Manfield, 1998a; Manfield & Shapiro, 2003; Marcus, Marquis, & Saki, 1997; Marquis, 1991; Maxwell, 2003; McCullough, 2002; McLaughlin et al, 2008; Mevissen, & de Jongh, 2010; Mevissen, Lievegoed, & de Jongh, 2010; Mevissen, Lievegoed, Seubert, & de Jongh, 2011; Parnell, 1996; 1997; Pollock, 2000; Power et al., 2002; Protinsky, Sparks, & Flemke, 2001a; Puk,1991b; Raboni, Tufik, & Suchecki, 2006; Renfrey & Spates, 1994; Rittenhouse, 2000; Sandstrom et al., 2008; Schneider, Nabavi, Heuft, 2005; Seidler & Wagner, 2006; Shapiro, 2012; Shapiro & Forrest, 1997; Shapiro & Laub, 2008; Spates & Burnette, 1995; Spector & Huthwaite, 1993; Sprang, 2001; van der Kolk, Spinazzola, Blaustein, Hopper, Hopper, Korn, Simpson, 2007; Tofani & Wheeler, 2011; van den Berg & van den Gaag, 2012; Vaughan, et al., 1994; Vaughan, Wiese, Gold, & Tarrier, 1994; Wilson, Becker, & Tinker, 1995, 1997; Wolpe & Abrams, 1991; Zabukovec, Lazrove & Shapiro, 2000.

 

Kaynakça*

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* http://www.emdr.com/general-information/clinical-applications.html

 

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